Notes for a potential London-based, cross-schools AQM Project
- London-wide Air Quality Monitoring project
- With resources and support for running it in schools and/ or community centres
- Assistance in acquiring the necessary kit (ranging from diffusion tubes to DIY monitoring components)
- Tied to the curriculum, with wide-reaching activities that touch on a range of subjects
- Partnering with scientific researchers in this field – both in terms of Air Quality and Citizen Science
- Sharing and mapping the data
- Building on the experience and platforms of existing projects
- Not a one-off activity, but an on-going one (annually in the classroom, seasonally in communities,)
- Data mapped and presented over time and location
The issue of AQ in London
- Air Pollution in Schools
- Sadiq Khan told 440 London schools they were ‘blighted by toxic air’
- “Sadiq Khan published a list of 357 primary schools and 86 secondaries with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels above the annual EU legal limit.The 10 primary schools with the worst NO2 included six in Westminster, according to analysis using 2013 data.They were St Mary’s Bryanston Square Church of England School, St Clement Danes CofE, St Peter’s Eaton Square CofE, Christ Church Bentinck CofE, The Minerva Academy and Hampden Gurney CofE.”
- “Three Westminster schools were among the 10 secondaries worst-affected by NO2. They are St Marylebone CofE, Harris Westminster Sixth Form and Westminster City School.”
- London Air Quality Survey, closes July 29th
- North Marylebone Air Quality Report October 2015
- Mapping for Change has run, and is running, a number of Community Engagement + Mapping projects around Air Quality:
- Science in the City is a project that is being carried out with residents in the Barbican and Mansell Street, in the City of London. Residents are using low-tech tools to measure Nitrogen Dioxide and particulates.
- In 2009, Mapping for Change supported communities across London to measure and map local air quality. Use of a ‘citizen science’ approach meant local residents in seven locations were able to collect data, then see the real results of their monitoring activities, and subsequently embark on a campaign to see the serious results addressed.
- Mapping for Change produced a Climate and Community Action Map, to inform people about initiatives happening in their local area. As there are thousands of organisations and projects that could be displayed, there is no one organisation that has a comprehensive list so any mapping will need to rely on local people’s knowledge and readiness to add their work to the map.
- The Pepys Estate in Deptford, south London, is a predominately 1960’s housing estate on the banks of the Thames, characterised by tower blocks and social housing. Situated near a busy thoroughfare and surrounding an industrial site, the estate suffers a variety of urban environmental issues.
- The GLA funds a programme called Clean Air 4 Schools. This helps teachers, pupils and parent learn more about air pollution, how to reduce the harm they are exposed to, and steps the school can take to make a small difference to the air pollution levels in their area. Currently funding is very limited, but in the Green Group budget amendment the Mayor has been pressed to allocate £800k so all of the worst affected schools can take it up. Contact details are on the LSX web site.
- Mayor’s Office Cleaner Air 4 Schools
- Mayor’s Office publications
- London Local Air Quality Management Report
- I Like Clean Air
- “We ran our first tests in September 2014 around four primary schools in south Hackney and then expanded it to include four more. Then we repeated it in February 2015, plotted the results on maps and distributed them at the school gates. We found that almost all the streets we tested were breaching legal air pollution limits for the whole year.”
- How Polluted is My Road http://www.howpollutedismyroad.org.uk/schools.php
- Research by the Campaign for Clean Air found that 1,148 schools in London are within 150 metres of roads carrying 10,000 or more vehicles per day, and a total of 2,270 schools are within 400 metres of such roads.
- Scientific research indicates that children exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollution at school and home may be at increased risk of developing asthma. Scientists say living near roads travelled by 10,000 or more vehicles per day could be responsible for some 15-30 per cent of all new cases of asthma in children; and of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and CHD (coronary heart disease) in adults 65 years of age and older.
- London Sustainability Exchange
- Cleaner Air 4 Communities: CA4C was an innovative citizen science and engagement project to educate, activate and encourage communities involvement in air quality in between July 2013 – June 2015. We engaged 8 borough councils and increased understanding and involvement in air quality issues in 11 community groups. The final report was recently published, and can be read here.
- The Mayor’s Air Quality Strategy
- A new report, Up in the Air, by Policy Exchange‘s Capital City Foundation and King’s College London, analyses data from over 100 air quality monitoring sites across London. It shows the most polluted parts of the Capital currently have levels of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) nearly four times the legal limit. The research finds that 12.5% of the total area of the Capital currently exceeds the legal limit for NO2, and that deprived parts of London are more likely to be affected. The report highlights some startling numbers:
- 328,000 school children and 3.8million workers in London are exposed to unhealthy levels of Nitrogen Dioxide which is linked to asthma and respiratory infections.
- 979 out of a total of 3,161 schools in London are over the limit for NO2. The data includes primary and secondary schools, including independent schools.
- Children attending schools in Inner London boroughs such as Westminster, Tower Hamlets, Southwark and Camden are particularly at risk to harmful levels of NO2 pollution.
- The London iSpex campaign was run by The Institute of Physics (IOP), also founding partner for the International Year of Light (IYL) and coordinator of its activities across the UK, is leading the local campaign activities, working closely with the Science & Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (STFC-RAL) and the iSPEX team at Leiden University in the Netherlands. This research project has now ended. http://ispex-eu.org/campaign-end-and-a-first-retrospective/
- Clean Air in London: Campaigning to achieve urgently and sustainably full compliance with World Health Organisation guidelines for air quality throughout London and elsewhere. (Simon Birkett)
- The Deliver Change NO2 IN SCHOOLS PROGRAMME: CO-LOCATING AN AIRSENSA DEVICE AND NO2 DIFFUSION TUBES. We are now expanding our schools programme to provide richer data than ever about how pollution affects school premises in heavily polluted locations, by co-locating an AirSensa continuous monitoring unit with NO2diffusion tubes (which measure average pollution over time). The diffusion tubes will allow us to collect data from multiple points on a school premises to show how gases distribute (and can be shielded against somewhat); the AirSensa unit will show how pollution fluctuates over time – minute by minute.
People Involved in AQM
- Ian Colbeck, University of Essex
- Benjamin Barratt (Lecturer in Air Quality Science) , King’s College London
- David Green (Deputy Air Quality Monitoring Manager), King’s College London
- Ian Mudway, another of KCL’s air pollution experts.
- Simon Birkett, director of the Clean Air in London campaign group
- Simon Birkett is Founder and Director of ‘Clean Air in London’ which has campaigned since 2006 to achieve full compliance with World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines for air quality throughout London and elsewhere. Simon is a member of the High-Level Intergovernmental and Stakeholder Advisory Group for the United Nations Environment Programme’s sixth Global Environment Outlook due to report in 2018. He is also a member of the Executive Council of the European Chapter of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology and Chairs the Knightsbridge Neighbourhood Forum. He obtained a first class honours degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Melbourne and a Master of Science from the London Business School before working for Schroders then HSBC for 21 years including latterly as Group Head of Financial Education in the Corporate Sustainability Department. Simon has been included in Evening Standards’ list of Top 1,000 most influential people in London in each of the last two years. Simon is quoted frequently in the UK and international media and has over 26,000 followers on Twitter and 35,000 on Facebook.
- Gemma George at the LSX, Cleaner Air 4 Schools & Cleaner Air 4 Communities: on 0207 234 9404 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
- Richard Howard Head of Environment & Energy, Policy Exchange (wrote the Up in the Air report)
- Sheila D’Souza, North Marylebone Traffic Committee, Governor of St Edward’s Catholic Primary School, Trustee of St Mary’s Hospital Development Trust and member of the St Marylebone Society and Marylebone Association.
- Dr Audrey de Nazelle, researcher at the Center for Environmental Policy at the Imperial College
Alan Andrews, Client Earth- Lawyer, Health and Environment. Clean Air Project Leader
- Change London Advisory Council:
Ruth Calderwood – Environmental Policy Officer, City of London Corporation
- Dr Jonathan Grigg – Professor, Queen Mary University London
- Daniel Instone – Formerly of Defra
- Dr Roderic Jones – Professor, Cambridge University
- Dr Frank Kelly – Professor, Kings College London
- David King – Chairman, Property & Asset Management, CBRE
- Karen Lawrence – Associate Director of Ops Devt, Royal Voluntary Service
- David Levin – Managing Director, United Learning
- John Plowman – Chair, London Sustainable Development
- Dr John Saffell – Technical Director, Alphasense
- Stephen Tate – Assistant Director, Environment, GLA
- Caroline Taylor – CMO & Head of Citizenship, IBM Europe
- In Toronto, the INHALE Project is testing an innovative air monitoring technique so residents can directly measure air pollution while walking or cycling. http://www.inhaleproject.ca/
- Ontario does have its own air monitoring stations—39 around Ontario, including four in Toronto
- The Toronto Environmental Alliance has a range of initiatives around Air Quality http://www.torontoenvironment.org/tags/air_quality
- another pioneering project called Bicycle Air Monitoring covers an even wider area by strapping air quality sensors to the bikes of volunteers.
- There’s a similar project in operation in Pittsburgh called GASP, or Group Against Smog and Pollution), rather than having just a few stationary air monitoring stations, as is currently the case in most places.
- The CITI-SENSE Citizens’ Observatories Central Web Portal http://co.citi-sense.eu/
- SenseBox – For a number of years, our team from the GI@School Lab at the Institute for Geoinformatics at the University of Muenster has been gathering experience through the organization of workshops with students and teachers. The collection of data with do-it-yourself sensor stations has provided an especially accessible way to work with geographic information and environmental data in this context. Moreover programming skills are taught in a very illustrative and tangible way. This experience led us to develop the senseBox:edu based on a combination of Arduino micro-controller, sensors, and accessories for teams to work in a classroom context. The senseBox:home simplifies this approach as a general Citizen Science Toolkit.
- Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) – Diffusion tubes –Mapping for Change Toolkit
- Deliver Change Educational Resources
- Projects on Hackaday.io
- Open AQ Articles on Medium
- Public Laboratory Air Quality Wiki
- Public Laboratory Discussion on Google Groups
- US Environmental Protection Agency Resources on Air Quality
- US EPA Air Sensor Toolbox for Citizen Scientists
- DEFRA Pollution forecast. Map of air pollution forecast Daily Air Quality https://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/
- Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) Support. Defra, UK
Draft Air Quality Plans – Defra – Citizen Space – Defra Consultation Hub
- The DIY Science Exhibition at the Science Museum: http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/visitmuseum/Plan_your_visit/exhibitions/beyond-the-lab
Other News Sites
- Air Quality Bulletin http://www.empublishing.co.uk/air/ subscription required
- Air Quality News http://www.airqualitynews.com/
- Business Green ‘is a business web site offering companies the latest news and best-practice advice on how to become more environmentally responsible’. Seehttp://www.businessgreen.com
- Environment Guardian is the environment section of the Guardian newspaper. Seehttp://www.theguardian.com/environment
- EurActiv.com ‘is the independent media portal fully dedicated to EU affairs’. A very good source of information about the EU and policy including air quality. Seehttp://www.euractiv.com/climate-environment
Government & NGO Information and Resources
- UK/England (Defra) http://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/
- London (Greater London Authority) https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/environment/clearing-londons-air
- Scotland http://www.scottishairquality.co.uk/
- Wales http://www.welshairquality.co.uk/
- Northern Ireland http://www.airqualityni.co.uk/
- European Union – EU Commission http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/index_en.htm
- World Health Organisation (WHO)- ‘WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system’. Air pollution information:http://www.who.int/topics/air_pollution/en/. The European regional office of WHO carries its own work on air pollution: European http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/environment-and-health/air-quality.
- The Government has released a list of the fifty most polluted stretches of road in the UK in 2013 to the campaign group Clean Air in London, and their predictions for the most pollution spots in future years.
- Canadian Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change Fine Particulate Matter
- Health Canada National Ambient Air Quality Objectives For Particulate Matter
- Environment Canada Particulate Matter
- United States Environmental Protection Agency Particulate Matter (PM)
- World Health Organization WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide
Air Quality Maps
- Air Quality Egg’s community-led Map
- Open AQ Live Map
- Plume’s live pollution report and pollution forecast in London
- Plume lab’s World Air Map
- AirCasting Maps – The AirCasting platform was built as an open-source, end-to-end solution for collecting, displaying, and sharing health and environmental data using your smartphone. The platform consists of wearable sensors that detect changes in your environment and physiology, including a palm-sized air quality monitor called the AirBeam, the AirCasting Android app, the AirCasting crowdmapping website, and wearable LED accessories. By documenting and leveraging health and environmental data to inform personal decision-making and public policy, the AirCasting platform empowers citizen scientists and changemakers like you and me to take matters into our own hands.
- The Ontarian INHALE project’s map
- King’s College London annual Air Quality Map
- Interactive Map (UK). Use this Interactive map to find information about your area:http://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/interactive-map. Your local council will also publish air quality information if it has an Air Quality Management Area(s). Use the ‘Local Authority Finder’ to find your local council(s): https://www.gov.uk/find-your-local-council
- London (London Air Quality Network) – The most comprehensive source of air quality information about London is the website of the London Air Quality Network published by Kings College London: http://www.londonair.org.uk
- The European Environment Agency carries out air pollution monitoring work for the European Union: http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/air
- SenseBox Map: https://sensebox.de/en/osem/
- Open AQ Sources worldwide
- London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2013: The LAEI 2013 is the latest version of the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory and replaces the previous versions.Estimates of key pollutants (NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2) are included for the base year 2013 and projected forward to 2020, 2025, and 2030. Emissions for previous years 2008 and 2010 are also provided, to allow comparison with previous versions of the LAEI. The LAEI area covers the 32 London Boroughs and the City of London and up to the M25 motorway
- London DataStore
- Air Quality Egg
- senseBox:edu offers schools, starting from the 7th grade, the possibility to learn programming in a fun and playful environment, to be a real citizen scientist and to get to know the world of geoinformatics. In the upper grades it can be used for projects on environmental phenomena, where sensor stations are built, programmed and positioned by the students. Furthermore the sensor stations are connected to the Internet, where the measurements are updated and published on openSenseMap. In this way, data can be shared with other schools, citizens and scientists.
- Sensors for temperature, humidity, air pressure, UV(A)-intensity, distance and more
- No soldering necessary
- Examples and instructions
- Learning units organized in a wiki
- Air Beam – AirBeam is a wearable air monitor that maps, graphs, and crowdsources your pollution exposures in real-time via the AirCasting Android app. AirBeams are $249 each. Domestic shipping is included in the price. Shipping outside the United States is $20 for the first unit and $10 for each additional unit. If you would like to purchase more than five AirBeams please email email@example.com. There is a 5% discount for orders of twenty or more AirBeams. If you have questions about the AirBeam or AirCasting email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- The Ontarian INHALE project uses the Dylos DC 1700 portable monitor http://www.inhaleproject.ca/air_monitoring_faq
- Air Quality Sensor Performance Evaluation Centre: http://www.aqmd.gov/aq-spec/evaluations#&MainContent_C001_Col00=2
- “SCAQMD’s AQ-SPEC program aims at being the testing center for low cost air monitoring sensors to establish performance standards by which sensors are evaluated. The program evaluates sensors in both controlled laboratory conditions and in the field. In the field, sensors are tested alongside one or more of SCAQMD’s existing air monitoring stations using traditional federal reference or equivalence methods to gauge overall performance. Sensors demonstrating acceptable performance in the field are then brought to the AQ-SPEC laboratory for more detailed testing in an atmospheric chamber under controlled conditions. “
- Journal of Sensors, Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 5656245, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5656245 – Citizen Sensing for Improved Urban Environmental Monitoring
- Industrial grade equipment: http://www.et.co.uk/products/air-quality-monitoring/
- Diffusion Tubes: http://www.et.co.uk/products/air-quality-monitoring/diffusiontubesandsamplers/
- The ‘Smog Mobile’ available for collaborations & research projects: http://www.et.co.uk/blog/2015/11/innovative-new-air-quality-monitoring-vehicle-from-enviro-technology/
- The CITI-SENSE Citizens Observatories Toolbox addresses the following components:
- The UK’s first air pollution cameras are being trialled in Birmingham and London.
London Air Quality Network Conferences
21 June 2016 – 60 years on from the Clean Air Act – air pollution in London today
- LAQN update – Tim Baker, King’s College London
- London’s air in flux – Dr Gary Fuller, King’s College London
- Impacts of air pollution on health through the decades – Anna Hansell, Imperial College
- Urban air pollution from solid fuel burning in Ireland – a different path taken – John Wenger, University College Cork
- 350 years of air pollution: what we think we know and what we don’t – Professor Anthony Seaton, University of Aberdeen
- Air pollution through the life course – Stephen Holgate, University of Southampton
- A new Mayor and a new approach to improving air quality in London – Elliott Treharne, Great London Authority
- Modelling human exposure under different climate policies – Sean Beevers, King’s College London
- SUSTRANS’ vision, safer streets – better places – cleaner air – Masa Sprajcar, Sustrans
- Constructing Communities – Jo Jack Williams, Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios
- London Air June 16 – Shane Clarke, Team London Bridge
2 July 2015 – Air Pollution trends and intervention analysis, engagement with businesses and communities
- London’s air in flux – Tim Baker, King’s College London
- PM Real time episode composition – Dr David Green, King’s College London
- Insights into AQ from large-scale tailpipe emissions measurement of passenger cars – Nick Molden, Emissions Analytics
- Working with communities – Dr Ben Barratt, King’s College London
- Working with business – Andrew Grieve, King’s College London
- Working with the construction industry – Daniel Marsh, King’s College London
- Working with ERG – Clean Space – Lord Paul Drayson, Drayson Technologies
- Quantification method for health effects of NO2 – Heather Walton, King’s College London
- Health effects air pollution mixtures – Dr Gary Fuller, King’s College London
- Dealing with notorious NO2 problem in Germany – Martin Lutz, Berlin Senate Dept for Health, Env & Consumer Protection
23-24 June 2014 – Frontiers in Air Quality Science
- The confluence of air quality, health and climate change: a challenge to air scientists…and everyone else – Dan Costa, US EPA
- Sixty years of air pollution measurements in London – evolving techniques and advancing understanding – Gary Fuller, King’s College London
- Recent findings from comprehensive vehicle emission remote sensing measurements – David Carslaw, King’s College London
- Challenges and the future of urban air quality monitoring in Europe – Thomas Kuhlbusch, Duisberg, Germany
- Advances in Modeling of Human Exposure to Air Pollution – Chris Frey, North Carolina State University, US
- EMEP4UK modelling – Mat Heal, University of Edinburgh
- Forecasting UK air quality present day and under a changing climate – Paul Agnew, Met Office
- Modelling human exposure in London present and future – Sean Beevers, King’s College London
- AQ – past, present & future – Bert Brunekreef, University of Utrecht
- The exposome approach to the study of exposure – disease associations.pdf – Paul Elliott, Imperial College London
- Heart and lungs victims of polluted air.pdf – Anders Blomberg, Umea, Sweden
- Fumifugium 2014 – Ian Mudway, King’s College London
- A journey through time–series analyses – Richard Atkinson, St George’s, University of London
- Comparing Remote Sensing Atmospheric Chemistry Ground based Estimates of Fine PM on Survival – Mike Jerrett, University of California, Berkeley
- Effects of ozone exposure in children RESPOZE a panel study in Greece.pdf – Klea Katsouyanni, King’s College London
- Translating scientific findings into policy recommendations for the Clean Air Policy Package proposed by EU – Markus Amann, IIASA
- Science/Policy interplay: Advance air quality measurements in Hong Kong in support of air quality improvements in the Pearl River Delta Region, China – Peter K. Louie, Environmental Protection Department, Hong Kong
- The European diesel car boom : causes and effects – Eckard Helmers, Trier University of Applied Sciences, Germany
- Communicating risk and uncertainty to policymakers and the public – Martin Williams, King’s College London
- View the Frontiers in Air Quality Science 2014 photo gallery